CASE-FLOW ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL AVIAN DISEASE INVESTIGATION LABORATORY (NADIL), CHITWAN DURING AUGUST 2016 TO JANUARY 2017
Shrestha1 and B. K. Shrestha2
¹Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuwan University, Nepal
²National Avian Disease Investigation Laboratory (NADIL), Chitwan, Nepal
Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Study was conducted from August 1, 2016 to January 31, 2017 at National Avian Disease Investigation Laboratory, Chitwan, Nepal to understand the case flow pattern of avian disease. Total of 1688 cases of poultry from 16 different districts of Nepal were necropsied and diagnosed based on the history of the flock, age of affected birds, clinical signs and symptoms, postmortem lesions, gross and microscopic examinations and isolation and identification of causal agents. Suspected cases of Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease and Infectious bursal disease (IBD) were confirmed using respective Rapid-Test kits available from Bionote Inc. Overall 28.08% bacterial disease, 25.05% Mixed infection, 16.94% Non-infectious disease, 10.60% Mycoplasmal disease, 8.23% viral disease, 0.53% parasitic disease and other diseases (1.18%) were observed. Further, Colibacillosis (14.16% incidence) was dominant followed by Chronic Respiratory Disease (10.60%), Mycotoxicosis (7.4%), Infectious Bursal Disease (6.69%), Mycotoxicosis with Salmonella (5.51%), Pasteurellosis (4.56%), Salmonellosis (4.5%), Urolithiasis (4.08%) and remaining other diseases. August showed peak incidence of almost all diseases. 52.72% cases occurred in autumn season whereas 47.28% occurred in spring season and almost all of the diseases showed decreasing trend in winter compared to autumn season. Layers of older age group, 19 weeks and above, showed highest incidence 83.01% compared to age group 0 to 8 weeks and 9 to 18 weeks having 8.65% and 8.33% respectively, while the age group between 15 to 28 days in broilers showed relatively higher incidence with 43.09% followed by >28 days (35.40%) and least (21.50%) in 0 to 14 days. This study revealed, occurrence of poultry diseases brought to NADIL varies with bird type, months, age group, therefore management and prevention strategy should be applied accordingly.
Keywords: Avian Disease, Case Flow, NADIL
Poultry farming has been growing at the rate of about 17-18% per year (FAO, 2014). Poultry rearing is a common practice in rural areas mainly with indigenous breeds with scavenging systems and commercial farming in small to large scale in and around urban areas of Nepal. It has entered in the area of commercialization from the primitive systems. According to Central Bureau of Statistics, the chicken egg production has increased from 560 million to 691 million from year 2003/04 to 2010/11 and the chicken meat production has increased from 15, 881 tons to 36085 tons per year from fiscal year 2003/04-2010/11. The poultry population in the year 2002 was 21.37 million which increased to 45.17 million in the year 2012. Poultry sector provides 3.5% in GDP and direct and indirect employment to almost one hundred thousand people.
With the rapid growth of poultry sector in the country, the susceptibility of the poultry towards the diseases also increases. There are several bacterial, viral, parasitic, fungal, Mycoplasmal, and other non-infectious diseases which have always been threat to the growing poultry industry. The study of the case flow pattern in the National Avian Disease Investigation Laboratory located in Bharatpur, Chitwan is presented in this report to create a general idea of existing poultry disease scenario of the country as Chitwan ranks first with 8.7 % in overall poultry production, 10 % in broiler production and 68 % in egg production. Moreover, cases from more than 16 districts are brought for diagnosis. (CBS, 2017).
Rationale of study
There is a rapid shift from conventional poultry production to commercial poultry production. The imports of parent stock nearly tripled over the seven year period from 2005/06 to 2011/12 (FAO, 2014), suggest rapid growth of poultry industry. The imported poultry hybrids require intensive care, the lack of which has increased the risk of diseases. Chitwan has been established as the major poultry producing district of the country (CBS, 2017). Therefore, the study on case flow of different poultry disease presented to National Avian Disease Investigation Laboratory, Chitwan will generate an surface idea in understanding the current scenario of poultry diseases across the country to mitigate the increased the chances of acquiring different poultry diseases.
- To know the case flow pattern of avian diseases at National Avian Disease Investigation Laboratory, Chitwan from August 2016 to January 2017
- To know the Month wise, Season wise frequency of cases,
- To know the frequency of different cases based on disease types,
- To know the age wise frequency of major disease of broiler and layers
MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY
Site of Study: National Avian Disease Investigation Laboratory (NADIL), Bharatpur.
Duration of Study: 6 months (From August 2016 to January 2017)
Sample size: Based on total number of cases that arrived at NADIL during the study period
Study Design: Retrospective Study
Sampling Method: All the cases that were bought to NADIL were recorded and are classified based on Month, Season, Address, Type of Birds, Age & Type of Disease
Diagnosis: Based on the history of the flock, age of affected birds, clinical signs and symptoms, postmortem lesions, gross and microscopic examinations and isolation and identification of causal agents. Suspected cases of Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease and Infectious bursal disease (IBD) were confirmed using respective Rapid-Test kits available from Bionote Inc.
Data Entry and Analysis: Data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2013, arranged, grouped and categorized with Pivot Table and analyzed and presented with descriptive statistics
The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of diseases in poultry brought to National Avian Disease Investigation Laboratory, Chitwan, Nepal during the period from August 2016 to January 2017. A total of 1688 either dead or sick poultry were brought to the selected laboratory from 16 different districts of the country to diagnose the existing diseases. The diagnosis of different diseases was done based on the clinical history of the flock, age of affected birds, clinical signs and symptoms, gross and microscopic examinations [Jones 1996, Khan 2000]. Rapid test kits were primarily used for the diagnosis of diseases including Avian Influenza, Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle Disease. In some cases, diseases were confirmed by the isolation and identification of causal agents. Suspected materials were incubated in MacConkey agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar, blood agar and cooked meat media for growth of Salmonella, E.coli, Aspergillus, Pasteurella and Clostridium respectively. The growth obtained was identified by various biochemical and sugar fermentation tests following methods described by (Harrigan, 1998). For viral disease diagnosis, several types of serological tests were performed at the Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, NADIL, Chitwan, Nepal. In some complicated cases suspected specimens were sent to the Central Animal Disease Investigation Laboratory (CADIL) at Tripureshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal for final confirmation. The influences of season and age on the occurrence of diseases were also analyzed. Accordingly, data were analyzed into three age groups: 0-14 days, 15-28 days, 29 to above days for broiler and three age groups: 0-8 weeks, 9-18 weeks and 19 weeks and above for layers. On the basis of climatic conditions the study period was divided into two seasons namely autumn and winter. Autumn season was considered from August to October and winter was considered from November to January.
Overview of diseases encountered
Colibacillosis (Coli), Omphalitis, Pasteurellosis, Pullorum Disease (PD), Salmonellosis (Sal) were the bacterial diseases encountered. Other bacterial Disease includes Egg Peritonitis (EP), Fowl Typhoid (FT). Mycoplasmal Disease includes Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) while Non-Infectious Diseases includes Ascites, Gout, Mycotoxicosis (MT), Urolithiasis. Cannabalism, Follicular Atresia, Head Swollen, Hemorrhagic Proliferative Proventriculus and Gizzard Erosion (HPPGE), Lameness, Laying Stress (LS), Misshaped Ova, Ovarian Tumor & Stress were the other non-infectious diseases encountered. Other Disease includes Air sacculitis, Chronic Infection, Enteritis, Fatty Liver Syndrome (FLS) & Nephritis while Parasitic Diseases includes Coccidiosis, Ascariasis, and Tapeworm. Similarly, Viral Disease includes Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD/ Gumboro) and other Viral Diseases includes Avian Influenza Virus, Avian Leucosis Complex, Hydropericardium Syndrome, Marek’s Disease, & Newcastle Disease (ND).
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Out of 1688 cases encountered during the study period of 6 months from August, 2016 to January, 2017, most of the cases were seen during August (436, 25.83%). There was decreasing trend of case flow from August till December. The case flow again started to increase from January (330, 19.55%) which can be understood by Figure 1.
Further, the flow of cases were uniform throughout the study period. i. e. per day cases also decreased when the overall cases of the month was decreased and vice versa as illustrated from Figure 2
This indicates the uniform flow of cases with decreasing pattern from Autumn Season to Winter and increasing pattern from winter season towards Spring which is similar to Joshi et al., 2013. Least number of cases in winter was also reported by Islam, et al., 2003. This may be due to the effect of minimum temperature, humidity and relatively clean environment during winter months.
Moreover, Abbas, et al., 2015 also noted the seasonal variation in infection might be due to the sudden change in temperature and cold stress on the birds.
Out of 16 districts from where the cases were brought to NADIL, the major cases were brought from Chitwan (71.03%) followed by Nawalparasi (14.45%), Makwanpur (6.45%), and the least from Parbat (<1%), which is similar to annual report of NADIL, 2071/71, Chitwan (70%), Nawalparasi (15%), Makwanpur (7%), Tanahun (2%). It may be due to the fact that Chitwan ranks first with 8.7 % in overall poultry production, 10 % in broiler production and 68 % in egg production (CBS, 2017) and the associated districted has more or less influence of the Chitwan. Moreover, most of the veterinary colleges and courses are offered in several colleges in Chitwan. This may have increased the public consciousness towards poultry raising.
Major Cases includes Broilers (76.54 %), followed by layers (18.54 %), parent (2.25%), Giriraj (1.48%) which is similar to Joshi, et al., 2013 where out of 558 cases 72.22% of broiler and 27.78% of layers were encountered in Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Chitwan, Nepal. Alcorn (2007) stressed broilers form by far the largest group of poultry farmed commercially. Further, it may be because broiler are more susceptible to diseases than layers. It can also be due to the fact that people raise more number of broilers followed by layers. Very low number of cases were brought from backyard poultry or native breeds of birds, it may be due to increased commercialization, the native breeds of birds are less raised or they are naturally resistant to diseases. Mwanza (1991) and Crowford (1991) has stressed on adaptive value and its specific combining ability of native breeds.
Major cases were bacterial (28.08%), followed by Mixed infection (25.05%), Non-infectious (16.94%), Mycoplasmal (10.60%), Viral Disease (8.23%), parasitic diseases (0.53%) and others (1.18%). Major bacterial disease followed by mixed infection may suggests poor management and biosecurity status of the farm, (Lister, S. A., 2007)
Major Diseases encountered includes Colibacillosis (14.16%), Chronic Respiratory Disease (10.60%), Mycotoxicosis (7.4%), Infectious Bursal Disease (6.69%), Mycotoxicosis with Salmonella (5.51%), Pasteurellosis (4.56%), Salmonellosis (4.5%), Urolithiasis (4.08%). Out of 558 cases, 19.53 % of Colibacillosis, followed by Mycotoxicosis (13.44%), Ranikhet (7.34%), Gumboro (6.6%), Coccidiosis (5.19%), Omphalitis (4.3%), Immunosuppression (4.1%), Marek’s Disease (3.2%), Hydropericardium Syndrome (2.5%), Salmonellosis (2.1%), Necrotic Enteritis (2.1%), Chronic Respiratory Disease (1.97%) (Joshi, L. R. et al., 2013). There are similarity somehow in occurrence of Colibacillosis, mycotoxicosis, salmonellosis, chronic respiratory diseases but dissimilarity in occurrence of viral diseases note by Joshi, et al., 2013 may be because our study was limited to autumn and winter season but his research covered overall year.
Escherichia coli is a normal and beneficial component of the intestine microflora, the imbalance of environment or body conditions may convert them into possible cause of disease, (Bames, J., 2008). Lack of effective follow up of the guidelines for effective poultry farming and haphazard management may increase chances of mixed infections. Respiratory disease in chickens is a common worldwide occurrence with the most common season for these diseases being in the winter months, and the predisposing conditions include poor ventilation, ammonia and dust. (Connor, S., 2012)
CRD (Mycoplasmal disease) ranks significant in occurrence during the study period, as supported by Abbas, et al., 2015 who considered Mycoplasma as an important pathogen of domestic poultry, causing severe economic losses in poultry industry worldwide.
Bacterial Diseases, Mixed Infection, Non-Infectious Diseases, Viral Disease & Parasitic Diseases are seen in greater number in Autumn Season than in Winter Season. But Mycoplasmal Disease is seen in greater number in Winter Season.
All the different types of diseases are seen in all groups of birds, more or less in similar manner. Viral disease and mycoplasmal disease relatively more in broilers and bacterial diseases relatively in layers.
Higher number of cases in Layers were seen in the older group of birds i.e. 19 weeks and above (83.01%), followed by 0 to 8 weeks (8.65%), 9 to 18 weeks (8.33%). It may be due to chronic infection towards the older ages in the layers,
Highest number of cases in Broilers were seen in the age group 15-28 days (43.09%), followed by >28 days (35.40%) and least in (21.50%) 0 to 14 days. It may be due to the deficit of manage-mental adequate care.
In Broilers, the average age of birds from different age group 0-14 days, 15-28 days and 29 days and above were respectively 9.51±3.23, 22.12±4.23 and 33.45±3.67 while in layers age group of 0-8 weeks, 9-18 weeks and 19 weeks and above were respectively 32.07±13.84, 86.73±23.16 and 324.13±140.63. The variation in the age of cases of layers compared to broilers were much higher.
Major Bacterial Disease was found to be Colibacillosis (50.42%), Pasteurellosis (16.24%), Salmonellosis (16.03%), Pullorum Disease (9.07%), Omphalitis (4.22%), Fowl typhoid (3.14%), and Egg Peritonitis (0.84%). Barnes (2008) also suggest E. coli as normal inhabitant of intestine which when the environment of the body get imbalance can serve as opportunistic pathogen to cause colibacillosis.
Major Non-Infectious Disease were Mycotoxicosis (43.71%), Urolithiasis (24.12%), Ascites (16.43%), Gout (9.09%), HPPGE (1.74%) and the least being Ovarian Tumor (0.34%). Inappropriate feed storage and use may be the cause to show higher incidence of Mycotoxicosis. Urolithiasis may be attributed by nutritional, infectious and toxic causes.
Major Parasitic Disease were Coccidiosis (66.67%), Tapeworm (22.22%) and Ascariasis (11.11%). It may be due to contaminated feed, dust, water, litter, and soil, also, [21°–32°C] with adequate moisture and oxygen favors sporulation increasing chance of coccidian, (Gerhold, R. W., 2016).
Major Viral Disease Include IBD (81.3%) followed by HPS (7.91%), ND (4.31%), AIV (2.87%), ALC (2.16%) & MD (1.43%). Stress contribute compromised immunity (Cazaban, C., 2014) & IBDV is very stable and difficult to eradicate from premises, (Jackwood, D. J., 2016)
Poultry diseases are increasing in number with increasing poultry production. Comparatively Winter Season is less prone to disease and infection of poultry as compared to Autumn Season. Colibacillosis is the major bacterial disease, Infectious Bursal Disease is the major viral disease, Mycotoxicosis is the major non-infectious disease, Chronic Respiratory Disease is the major Mycoplasmal Disease, Coccidiosis is the major Parasitic disease among the cases brought to National Avian Disease Investigation Laboratory (NADIL) during autumn and winter season of the year 2016/ 017.
Further, Chronic Respiratory Diseases are most common in winter season than autumn. Older layers and middle aged broilers are more prone to poultry diseases. Colibacillosis stand tall in highest prevailing poultry disease in Chitwan and its vicinity. Old Aged layers and middle aged broiler are more susceptible to diseases. Also, Chitwan district stands first in the commercial poultry production and associated number of cases.
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