Aspergillus fumigatus is primarily responsible for it
Inhalation of fungal spores from contaminated litter or feed play a role in transmission.
The susceptibility is high in young chickens than older ones. It can infect a wide range of species including turkey poults, pheasants, quails, ducklings and goslings.
Depression, thirsty behavior, gasping and rapid behavior can be noticed. Yellow-white pin head sized lesions are common gross lesions in lungs and airsacs. But there be small yellow-green granular fungus growth in the entire body cavities. Mortality varies from 5 to 50%.
The fungus can be identified microscopically from the lesion samples from respiratory passage, airsacs or abdominal cavity. Sometimes, it can be seen grossly as well. The confirmation is done by isolation and identification from the above lesions.
Treatment and Control
The strict hygiene and quality litter are most for its prevention. These are quite important in breeders and hatchery where antifungal disinfectants and appropriate disinfection procedures can be useful. But the treatment is not specifically available for disease once the birds get infection. Removal and destruction of the infected birds is the best way to manage the disease
Candidiasis, mycotic diseases of the digestive tract of various avian species, including chickens, turkeys, and quail caused by Candida albicans.
It’s more likely to develop after use of therapeutic levels of various antibiotics or when using unsanitary drinking facilities.
Lesions are mostly confined in the crop and consist of thickened mucosa and whitish, raised pseudo membranes. The same lesions may be seen in the mouth and esophagus. Occasionally, shallow ulcers and sloughing of necrotic epithelium may be present. Listlessness and in appetence may be the only signs.
A presumptive diagnosis may be made on observation of gross lesions. Diagnosis can be confirmed by demonstrating tissue invasion histologically and by culture of the organism. However, culture alone is not diagnostic of disease, because the yeast-like fungus is commonly isolated from clinically normal birds. Young chicks and poults are most susceptible.
Improving sanitation and minimizing antibiotic use in poultry help reduce the incidence of candidiasis. Candidiasis can be treated or prevented with copper sulfate at 1:2,000 dilution in the drinking water, but its effectiveness is controversial.