Poultry has influenced man’s civilization in many ways. Egg and Meat of birds are being consumed since pre-historic times. Poultry meat is also used extensively as a delicious food.
Chicken is one of the most popular domesticated fowls in Nepalese Society ,Nepalese culture, tradition and food habits shows perpetual presence of domesticated chickens in Nepalese house holds since the beginning of recorded history.
Now a days, the poultry farming is extensively increasing and forced greater contribution to the National GDP. The present day growth of commercial poultry farms has been possible because of the following factors:-
- Availability of genetically superior stock of high productivity.
- Availability of synthetic vitamin & plentiful supply of coarse cereal grains.
- The formulation of economic & balanced poultry rations & keeping the birds under the deep-litter system of management.
- Manufacture of effective vaccines against dreadful poultry diseases such as Ranikhet , fowlpox, Marek’s, Mycoplasma etc.
- The progress in the field of manufacture of poultry equipment.
The poultry industry of date has thus become a sound and stable field of business and has consequently attracted huge investment from the private sector comprising land less labor , marginal & sub marginal farmers, industrial workers, educated unemployed youth & big financiers.
Depending upon the activities on poultry farms, Hatchery, Brooder-house, Broiler house, Layer house, Poultry processing units, Feed Mills etc buildings may be needed. There is no hard and fast rule for the use of building . These buildings should be located in such a way that it cuts down the changes of contamination to minimum affords maximum labor efficiency and better supervision of farm with least effort.
FACTOR INFLUENCING DESIGN OF POULTRY HOUSE:-
Designing a poultry building in orders a sense of compromise between ideals and feasibility to give best economic performance. Followings are the main factors to be considered:-
- Floor, Feeder & water space management..
- Orientation of house.
It is difficult for chickens of any age to withstand high temp along with high humidity .Under both the conditions birds have breath faster and ultimately it may not breath faster enough to remove all the heat from the body. Prostration and death occur when the body temperature rises above the physiological maximum . This is said to be the upper lethal temp, and is about 470c but it is not absolute .
The amount of air movement needed to keep the litter dry in a poultry house will depend up on the air temp- inside and outside the house and also on humidity gradient inside and outside the house.
Generally ventilation is required in poultry house for three purposes:
- To provide sufficient oxygen for birds to keep them healthy and in peak production. To remove ammonia,Co2,Methane, and other undesired gaseous from poultry sheds.
- To keep the temp of poultry house down during summer.
Correct humidity is another important factor for efficient performance of birds in the shed at different stages of life. High humidity in sheds is very harmful to birds and it may help development of pathogenic micro-organisms causing diseases in birds. Low humidity in poultry house results in dry and dusty litter and this might lead to respiratory ailments. So the RH in poultry shed should range between 40-60 % .
Plenty of sunlight in the house during winter months helps to moderate low temperature and to keep the litter dry. Sunlight is an effective germicide and is thus beneficial to the flock. Light in poultry shed should be evenly distributed .The ratio of light from poorly lighted corner to brightly lighted corner should not be more than 1:3 i.e., If poorly lit corner has light intensity this ratio becomes wider than 1:15 problem at both ends may arise. The birds in brightly lit area are likely to develop Cannibalism and the birds of the other corner may not even get enough light to be physiologically activated , Such uneven distribution of light will lead the birds to utilize only comfortable area of the shed. Both poorly and brightly lit areas will remain unutilized.
REQUIREMENT OF FLOOR SPACE, FEEDERS AND WATERER:-
The requirement for floor space and equipment vary according to age, size and type of bird to be maintained .The requirement with respect to these are given in Table (a) & (b).
Table : (a) Floor space requirement per bird:
Age(weeks) Floor space/Bird (cm2)
Light breed Heavy breed
0-8 700 (min) 700(min)
9-12 950(min) 950(min)
13-20 1900(min) 2350(min)
21 and above 2300-2800(min) 2800-3700(min)
Table: (b) Feeder and Watering space requirement :
Age (week) Feeder and watering space (min) per 100 birds
Linear (cm) Cnannel type Fountain
(Feeder space) water(cm) type water
0-2 250 25 9.0
3-6 400 100 18.0
7-12 750 150 20.0
13 and above 1000 250 22.5
ORIENTATION OF HOUSE:-
The effect of weather elements are strongly directional. Orientation of building with respect to wind and sun , where there is freedom of space, it is expected to orient buildings to achieve the house obviously endures , greater wind pressure than does the narrow dimension under the same wind speed .
The rules which is given the relation of sunshine to site exposure apply equally to building orientation. In the Northern Hemisphere the greatest amount of use Latino is received by the east and south east sides of a house in the morning and by the west and south west sides in the afternoon . (In Summer, with increasing latitude the path of the sun in the sky). Directionally, an east-west alignment of a rectangular house provides the maximum gain of solar energy in winter and minimum in summer.
There are 4 systems of housing among the poultry keepers.
- Free-range systems or extensive system.
- Semi -intensive system.
- Folding unit system.
- Intensive system.
- Battery system
- Deep litter system.
Under the intensive system, Battery and Deep litter methods are most common.
- Battery system:- In the battery system, each hen is confined to a cage just large enough to permit very limited movement and allow them to stand and sit comfortably. The usual floor space is 14X16 inches and height 17 inches, Both food and water receptacles are outside the battery (cage).
- Deep litter system:- In this system, the poultry birds are kept in large pens up to 250 birds each, on floor covered with litters like straw saw dust or leaves up to 8-12 inches. Deep litter similar like dry comfort .
- The birds and eggs are safe inside the house.
- Litters supplies food requirement to the birds e.g.: ‘Animal Protein Factor’.
- Easy to control disease
- It is the less labor demanded system
- A considerable amount of fertilizer can be obtained from litter.
- The birds burrow into the litter during the hot climate because the litter maintains its own constant temperature.
FEED ENERGY FOR BROILERS:
Type of bird/period C.P: M.E./kg
Broiler 0-2 wk. 58X2.2
Broiler 3-7 wk. 75X2.2
laying & breeders 81X2.2(70% production)
Following types of rations are commonly used for Broiler:
- Broiler starter: It is to be given up to 14 days of age.
- Broiler grower :It is to be given up to 37 days of age.
- Broiler finisher : It is to be fed from 38 Th days till the broilers are marketed.
An ample supply of clean water should be kept available at all times, Each 100 chicken should be provided with two 1- gallon fountain, the first two or 3 wk. and 40 inches of drinking space or two –3 gallon fountains the remainder of the brooder period .
A ration of lower protein and higher calorie content than that used for starting broilers is economical for finishing them. This ration may be fed from about the 6th week until the birds are marketed . Another way of reducing the protein and increasing the energy is to feed whole corn free choice with the starting mash from about the 6 Th week until the broilers are marketed . Reducing the protein will not result in greater gains but does improve the finish of the birds and reduces the cost of the ration.
USE OF HORMONES:
Diethylstilbestrol pellets may be implanted under the nook skin or dievestrol diacetate may be incorporated in the feed at a level of 30 mg per pound about 2 to 4 weeks before the bends are marketed in order to produce a better (fat) finish on growing chickens .
Chicks reared for meat production is known as broiler. The broiler must be raised for 6-8 weeks during this period it will gain approx. 2 kg. live wt. The basic principles of broiler raising are similar to the chicken farming for egg production . However there ate some difference as far as the birds are used for broiler production, their feed housing & other management requirements including their processing and marketing. Some of these specific requirements are discussed here .